Validation in Scala

By Bart Schuller on 02 March 2012  validation  Scala

When you start your journey in the land of Scala, you’ll often receive the friendly advice to not wander in the woods of Scalaz (pronounced Scala-zed), because there’s nothing of interest for beginners there and you’ll most likely get lost. It’s certainly possible to get lost, but this article will show you that it’s possible to pick just a few things that give you immediate benefit.

The subject of this trip is Validation: how to represent a computation which can either give a result, or a failure message. Or rather: how to represent a sequence of computations (each of which may fail) giving either a complete result or else a list of the failure messages.


To start, consider a plain case class for representing a person with a birth date and an address:


import java.util.Date
case class Person(name: String, birthDate: Date, address: List[String])

We would now like to construct Person objects given a string with components separated by a semicolon, for instance a CSV file. You can imagine this parse failing in a number of ways:

  • less than 3 components found
  • unparseable date
  • incomplete address

Our test data looks like this:

val bad = "Name Only"
val partial = "Joe Colleague;1974-??-??;Rotterdam"
val good = "Bart Schuller;2012-02-29;Some Street 123, Some Town"


To represent the result of the parse, we are looking for a type with two faces: either a Person or a list of error messages. There are two candidates in the Scala standard library that aren’t quite right:

Option[Person] can represent Some[Person] or None, but there’s no place to store the error messages inside None.

Either[List[String], Person] though can be either Left[List[String]] or Right[Person], which at least gives us a place to store everything we want. Unfortunately, it doesn’t offer a nice API: putting the failures on the left is only a convention, and it’s still possible to have a failure without a message: Left[Nil] fits the type.

Scalaz to the rescue

Scalaz has Validation[A, B] where Failure[A] is your type for failures and Success[B] for success. But we can do one better. Because you often want to collect all failures and because having a failure means we have at least one failure message, there’s ValidationNEL[A, B]. ‘NEL’ stands for Non-Empty List, and A is the element type, for which we’ll use plain strings. So our parser will return ValidationNEL[String, Person].

When we break up our program into smaller parts, we’ll also use validations for the substeps, to be combined later. So you’ll see ValidationNEL[String,Date] when we try to parse our birth dates.

Creating validations

Here’s a complete example of a method returning a validation. We use the normal java way of parsing a Date, where failure is indicated by returning null. We test for that and generate a nice failure message instead:

def parseDate(in: String): ValidationNEL[String, Date] = {
  val sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd")
  sdf.parse(in, new ParsePosition(0)) match {
    case null => ("Can’t parse ["+in+"] as a date").failNel[Date]
    case date => date.successNel[String]

As you can see, you can create a Failure from anything, by calling failNel[B] on it, where B is the type you’d rather have. Conversely, you need to wrap a Date inside a Success and you do that by calling successNel[A] where A is again the type parameter for the other branch. Because we use strings for failure messages we say successNel[String]

Dealing with Options

On the top level of our parser, we start by splitting the string on semicolons. string.split(';') returns an array, but we don’t know how many elements it will have. Each component could be missing, and if so, would need its own failure message. One trick for dealing with sequences of unknown size is to call lift on them, which gives you a function that will accept any integer index and return an Option of the element type. This makes it easy to test for the presence of each element, without having to catch exceptions.

For each component we now want to specify what to return when we have a string, and what failure to generate when we have nothing. The fold method which Scalaz adds to Option does just that.

def parsePerson(in: String): ValidationNEL[String, Person] = {
  val components = in.split(';').lift
  val name = components(0).fold(_.successNel[String], "No name found".failNel[String])
  val date = components(1).fold(parseDate(_), "No date found".failNel[Date])
  val address = components(2).fold(parseAddress(_), "No address found".failNel[List[String]])

parseAddress splits the given string again on comma and whitespace, checking that we have at least two address lines:

def parseAddress(in: String): ValidationNEL[String,List[String]] = {
  val address = in.split(",\\s*")
  if (address.length > 1)
    ("An address needs to have a street and a city, separated by a comma; found ["+in+"]").failNel[List[String]]

Combining Validations

Now that we have all the components required to construct a Person (or the individual reasons why we can’t), we need to actually make this combination work. Our inputs are Validations and our output should be a single Validation, with Person as the success type. So the type of the expression should be something like (Validation, Validation, Validation) => ValidationNEL[String, Person].

parsePerson, continued

(name |@| date |@| address) { Person(_, _, _) }

The |@| operator (sometimes written as the unicode character ) is the combinator we’re looking for: it combines validations into a single object, which in turn allows us to specify how we want the success branch to combine. The failure branch will automatically do the right thing, constructing a list of the failure messages.
The combined object has an apply method with the right number of parameters and so it’s just a matter of passing them to the Person constructor.

To wrap it up, here’s how to call parsePerson and handle the result:

def tryParse(s: String) {
  parsePerson(s) match {
    case Success(p) => {
      println("Succesfully parsed a person: " + p)
    case Failure(f) => {
      println("Parsing failed, with the following errors:")
      f foreach { error => println("  " + error) }

Contrast and Conclusion

There are lots of ways to handle errors in your programs. In Java, the most obvious way is to use Exceptions. Methods using exceptions automatically combine, but unfortunately not in the way you would like: any failure will immediately be reported, and it will be the only failure reported. It is of course possible to combine exceptions in other ways, but that means riddling your program with try-catch blocks around every sub step, which clutters the code beyond recognition.

Validation allows you to organize your code along the lines of the happy flow, while still handling errors correctly.

You have seen a practical use for some of the powerful concepts that Functional Programming and Scalaz offer. I haven’t told you that you’ve used an Applicative Functor, because that might have scared you off. You don’t need to know the fancy names to use the library though.

The complete source code for this tutorial is available on github:

Bart Schuller (@BartSchuller) works at Lunatech Research.

This article at Hacker News